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On February 17, 2001, President George W. Bush signed Executive Order 13202, „Preservation of Open Competition and Government Neutrality Government Contractors` Labor Relations on Federal and Federally Funded Construction Projects,“ which prohibits the use of PLA for construction projects with federal funds. [21] In that decision, it was said that federally funded construction projects could not impose project work contracts. [22] In practical terms, the decision specifies that neither the federal government nor a federal aid agency can compel or prohibit construction contractors from signing union contracts as a precondition for carrying out work on federally funded construction projects. [21] The contract allowed all previously agreed-upon LASs to proceed and did not result in projects that did not receive federal funding. [23] Bush`s ordinance overturned the previous executive order regarding the PLA, the Clinton Ordinance of 12836, which annulled The Executive Order of President George H.W. Bush in 1992. [16] In April 2001, President George W. Bush issued an amendment to exclude certain drafts from the order if, at the time of the contract, a contract had already been awarded under an existing PLA. [24] Although the collective agreement itself is not applicable, many of the negotiated terms relate to wages, conditions, leave, pensions, etc. These conditions are included in a worker`s employment contract (whether the worker is unionized or not); and the employment contract is of course applicable. If the new conditions are not acceptable to individuals, they may be contrary to their employer; but if the majority of workers have agreed, the company will be able to dismiss the complainants, usually unpunished. Workers are not required to join a union in a given workplace.

Nevertheless, most industries, with an average union training of 70%, are subject to a collective agreement. An agreement does not prohibit higher wages and better benefits, but sets a legal minimum, much like a minimum wage. In addition, an agreement on national income policy is often, but not always, reached, bringing together all trade unions, employers` organisations and the Finnish government. [1] Studies have shown that PLA project owners and local communities have advantages and penalize contractors and non-union workers.